vendredi 21 novembre 2008
"A New Path for World Development"
It is clear that the present path of world development is not sustainable in the longer term, even if we recognise the enormous potentials of the market and of technological innovation. New ideas and strategies will be needed to ensure that improved living conditions and opportunities for a growing population across the world can be reconciled with the conservation of a viable climate and of the fragile ecosystems on which all life depends. A new vision and path for world development must be conceived and adopted if humanity is to surmount the challenges ahead.
In response to this intellectual and practical challenge, the Club of Rome will undertake a three year programme on "A New Path for World Development" so as to achieve a better understanding of the complex challenges which confront the modern world and to lay solid foundations for the action which must be taken to improve the prospects for peace and progress.
The Programme will not only engage decision makers and experts and provide them with feasible proposals for action but will also engage with the public through a variety of channels. It will be in part, an "open source" programme. It will undertake only a limited amount of original research, drawing on the wide array of available information and research in progress. It will be implemented in close collaboration with partner organizations, providing a framework through which their ideas and contributions can be integrated. This will increase the credibility and impact of the efforts of the Club itself.
Les six premiers niveaux sont des "niveaux minima pour vivre" marqués par une "pensée premier palier"." Alors se produit un changement révolutionnaire de la conscience: l'apparition de "niveaux d'être" et de pensée "deuxième palier," dont il y a deux vagues principales. Voici une courte description de chacune des huit vagues, du pourcentage de la population du monde à chaque vague, et du pourcentage de la puissance sociale détenue par chacune.
§ 16:05 17 November 2008 by Jeff Hecht
Things may seem bad now - with fears of a world recession looming - but they could be set to get much worse.
A real-world analysis of a controversial prediction made 30 years ago concludes that economic growth cannot be sustained and we are on track for serious economic collapse this century.
In 1972, the seminal book Limits to Growth by a group called the Club of Rome claimed that exponential growth would eventually lead to economic and environmental collapse.
The group used computer models that assessed the interaction of rising populations, pollution, industrial production, resource consumption and food production.
Most economists rubbished the book and its recommendations have been ignored by governments, although a growing band of experts today continues to argue that we need to reshape our economy to become more sustainable.
Now Graham Turner at theCommonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
(CSIRO) in Australia has compared the book's predictions with data from the intervening years.
Changes in industrial production, food production and pollution are all in line with the book's predictions of collapse in the 21st century, says Turner. According to the book, the path we have taken will cause decreasing resource availability and an escalating cost of extraction that triggers a slowdown of industry, which eventually results in economic collapse some time after 2020.
According to Herman Daly of the University of Maryland, Turner's results show that we "must get off the growth path of business as usual, and move to a steady state economy," stopping population growth, resource depletion, and pollution.
- 02 April 2008 by Debora MacKenzie
DOOMSDAY. The end of civilisation. Literature and film abound with tales of plague, famine and wars which ravage the planet, leaving a few survivors scratching out a primitive existence amid the ruins. Every civilisation in history has collapsed, after all. Why should ours be any different?
Doomsday scenarios typically feature a knockout blow: a massive asteroid, all-out nuclear war or a catastrophic pandemic (see "Will a pandemic bring down civilisation?"). Yet there is another chilling possibility: what if the very nature of civilisation means that ours, like all the others, is destined to collapse sooner or later?
A few researchers have been making such claims for years. Disturbingly, recent insights from fields such as complexity theory suggest that they are right. It appears that once a society develops beyond a certain level of complexity it becomes increasingly fragile. Eventually, it reaches a point at which even a relatively minor disturbance can bring everything crashing down.
Some say we have already reached this point, and that it is time to start thinking about how we might manage collapse. Others insist it is not yet too late, and that we can - we must - act now to keep disaster at bay.
History is not on our side. Think of Sumeria, of ancient
Lester Brown of the Earth Policy Institute in
Others think our problems run deeper. From the moment our ancestors started to settle down and build cities, we have had to find solutions to the problems that success brings. "For the past 10,000 years, problem solving has produced increasing complexity in human societies," says Joseph Tainter, an archaeologist at
If crops fail because rain is patchy, build irrigation canals. When they silt up, organise dredging crews. When the bigger crop yields lead to a bigger population, build more canals. When there are too many for ad hoc repairs, install a management bureaucracy, and tax people to pay for it. When they complain, invent tax inspectors and a system to record the sums paid. That much the Sumerians knew.
There is, however, a price to be paid. Every extra layer of organisation imposes a cost in terms of energy, the common currency of all human efforts, from building canals to educating scribes. And increasing complexity, Tainter realised, produces diminishing returns. The extra food produced by each extra hour of labour - or joule of energy invested per farmed hectare - diminishes as that investment mounts. We see the same thing today in a declining number of patents per dollar invested in research as that research investment mounts. This law of diminishing returns appears everywhere, Tainter says.
To keep growing, societies must keep solving problems as they arise. Yet each problem solved means more complexity. Success generates a larger population, more kinds of specialists, more resources to manage, more information to juggle - and, ultimately, less bang for your buck.
Eventually, says Tainter, the point is reached when all the energy and resources available to a society are required just to maintain its existing level of complexity. Then when the climate changes or barbarians invade, overstretched institutions break down and civil order collapses. What emerges is a less complex society, which is organised on a smaller scale or has been taken over by another group.
Tainter sees diminishing returns as the underlying reason for the collapse of all ancient civilisations, from the early Chinese dynasties to the Greek city state of
An ineluctable process
Western industrial civilisation has become bigger and more complex than any before it by exploiting new sources of energy, notably coal and oil, but these are limited. There are increasing signs of diminishing returns: the energy required to get each new joule of oilis mounting and although global food production is still increasing, constant innovation is needed to cope with environmental degradation and evolving pests and diseases - the yield boosts per unit of investment in innovation are shrinking. "Since problems are inevitable," Tainter warns, "this process is in part ineluctable."
Is Tainter right? An analysis of complex systems has led Yaneer Bar-Yam, head of the New England Complex Systems Institute in
To run a hierarchy, managers cannot be less complex than the system they are managing," Bar-Yam says. As complexity increases, societies add ever more layers of management but, ultimately in a hierarchy, one individual has to try and get their head around the whole thing, and this starts to become impossible. At that point, hierarchies give way to networks in which decision-making is distributed. We are at this point.
This shift to decentralised networks has led to a widespread belief that modern society is more resilient than the old hierarchical systems. "I don't foresee a collapse in society because of increased complexity," says futurologist and industry consultant Ray Hammond. "Our strength is in our highly distributed decision making." This, he says, makes modern western societies more resilient than those like the old
Things are not that simple, says Thomas Homer-Dixon, a political scientist at the University of Toronto, Canada, and author of the 2006 book The Upside of Down. "Initially, increasing connectedness and diversity helps: if one village has a crop failure, it can get food from another village that didn't."
As connections increase, though, networked systems become increasingly tightly coupled. This means the impacts of failures can propagate: the more closely those two villages come to depend on each other, the more both will suffer if either has a problem. "Complexity leads to higher vulnerability in some ways," says Bar-Yam. "This is not widely understood."
The reason is that as networks become ever tighter, they start to transmit shocks rather than absorb them. "The intricate networks that tightly connect us together - and move people, materials, information, money and energy - amplify and transmit any shock," says Homer-Dixon. "A financial crisis, a terrorist attack or a disease outbreak has almost instant destabilising effects, from one side of the world to the other."
For instance, in 2003 large areas of North America and
Perrow says interconnectedness in the global production system has now reached the point where "a breakdown anywhere increasingly means a breakdown everywhere". This is especially true of the world's financial systems, where the coupling is very tight. "Now we have a debt crisis with the biggest player, the
The networks that connect us can amplify any shocks. A breakdown anywhere increasingly means a breakdown everywhere
"A networked society behaves like a multicellular organism," says Bar-Yam, "random damage is like lopping a chunk off a sheep." Whether or not the sheep survives depends on which chunk is lost. And while we are pretty sure which chunks a sheep needs, it isn't clear - it may not even be predictable - which chunks of our densely networked civilisation are critical, until it's too late.
"When we do the analysis, almost any part is critical if you lose enough of it," says Bar-Yam. "Now that we can ask questions of such systems in more sophisticated ways, we are discovering that they can be very vulnerable. That means civilisation is very vulnerable."
We are discovering that networked systems can be very vulnerable. That means civilisation is very vulnerable
So what can we do? "The key issue is really whether we respond successfully in the face of the new vulnerabilities we have," Bar-Yam says. That means making sure our "global sheep" does not get injured in the first place - something that may be hard to guarantee as the climate shifts and the world's fuel and mineral resources dwindle.
Tightly coupled system
Scientists in other fields are also warning that complex systems are prone to collapse. Similar ideas have emerged from the study of natural cycles in ecosystems, based on the work of ecologist Buzz Holling, now at the
"It becomes an extremely efficient system for remaining constant in the face of the normal range of conditions," says Homer-Dixon. But unusual conditions - an insect outbreak, fire or drought - can trigger dramatic changes as the impact cascades through the system. The end result may be the collapse of the old ecosystem and its replacement by a newer, simpler one.
Is there an alternative? Could we heed these warnings and start carefully climbing back down the complexity ladder? Tainter knows of only one civilisation that managed to decline but not fall. "After the
Staving off collapse
Pulling off the same trick will be harder for our more advanced society. Nevertheless, Homer-Dixon thinks we should be taking action now. "First, we need to encourage distributed and decentralised production of vital goods like energy and food," he says. "Second, we need to remember that slack isn't always waste. A manufacturing company with a large inventory may lose some money on warehousing, but it can keep running even if its suppliers are temporarily out of action."
The electricity industry in the
Homer-Dixon doubts we can stave off collapse completely. He points to what he calls "tectonic" stresses that will shove our rigid, tightly coupled system outside the range of conditions it is becoming ever more finely tuned to. These include population growth, the growing divide between the world's rich and poor, financial instability, weapons proliferation, disappearing forests and fisheries, and climate change. In imposing new complex solutions we will run into the problem of diminishing returns - just as we are running out of cheap and plentiful energy.
"This is the fundamental challenge humankind faces. We need to allow for the healthy breakdown in natural function in our societies in a way that doesn't produce catastrophic collapse, but instead leads to healthy renewal," Homer-Dixon says. This is what happens in forests, which are a patchy mix of old growth and newer areas created by disease or fire. If the ecosystem in one patch collapses, it is recolonised and renewed by younger forest elsewhere. We must allow partial breakdown here and there, followed by renewal, he says, rather than trying so hard to avert breakdown by increasing complexity that any resulting crisis is actually worse.
Lester Brown thinks we are fast running out of time. "The world can no longer afford to waste a day. We need a Great Mobilisation, as we had in wartime," he says. "There has been tremendous progress in just the past few years. For the first time, I am starting to see how an alternative economy might emerge. But it's now a race between tipping points - which will come first, a switch to sustainable technology, or collapse?"
It's now a race between tipping points - which will come first, a switch to sustainable technology or collapse?
Tainter is not convinced that even new technology will save civilisation in the long run. "I sometimes think of this as a 'faith-based' approach to the future," he says. Even a society reinvigorated by cheap new energy sources will eventually face the problem of diminishing returns once more. Innovation itself might be subject to diminishing returns, or perhaps absolute limits.
Studies of the way cities grow by Luis Bettencourt of the Los Alamos National Laboratory,
The stakes are high. Historically, collapse always led to a fall in population. "Today's population levels depend on fossil fuels and industrial agriculture," says Tainter. "Take those away and there would be a reduction in the Earth's population that is too gruesome to think about."
If industrialised civilisation does fall, the urban masses - half the world's population - will be most vulnerable. Much of our hard-won knowledge could be lost, too. "The people with the least to lose are subsistence farmers," Bar-Yam observes, and for some who survive, conditions might actually improve. Perhaps the meek really will inherit the Earth.
Pour votre information /" épistémologie", "sciences", " philosophie" et " spiritualité" en date du 19.11.08
Pour votre information , quelques adresses "internet" sur " épistémologie", "sciences", " philosophie" et " spiritualité" en date du 19.11.08
1 / Nouvelles Clés.com - Chamanes au fil du temps
2 / Nouvelles Clés.com -La nature est intelligente, et nous ?
3 / Nouvelles Clés.com - Quelles alternatives humaines à la crise ?
4 / Nouvelles Clés.com - Les contraintes écologiques nous tombent dessus avec une violence inouïe - par François Lemarchand
5 / Nouvelles Clés.com - Les 5 stades de l’action écologique des multinationales - par Jean-François Rischard
7 / Nouvelles Clés.com - Comment nos descendants travailleront-ils ? - par Thierry Gaudin
9 /Nouvelles Clés .com - Un philosophe face au divin - par Luc Ferry
10 /Nouvelles Clés.com - Désirer c’est se convertir au monde - par André comte Sponville
11 /Nouvelles Clés.com - Marc de Smedt - Patrice Van Eersel - L’émergence dans l’urgence
12 /Nouvelles Clés.com - Denis Marquet - La joie n’a pas de cause
13 /Nouvelles Clés.com - Léon Mercadet - Pendant le krach, la température monte toujours
14 / Nouveles Clés .com - Les Créatifs Culturels en France
15 / Le Monde - Planète - Le créationnisme étend son influence en Europe
16 / Le Monde - Planète - En France, un collectif d'enseignants-chercheurs tire la sonnette d'alarme
17 / Sauvons le Climat - 10 Questions sur l'éolien, une énergie du XXI eme siècle ?
18 / Alternatives Economiques - Les inégalités et l'excès de profit comme facteurs de crise par Jean Gadrey Professeur Economie - Lille -
19 / Jean Cadrey - Professeur d'Economie - Des propositions pour dépasser le dilemme : Croissance / Décroissance
20 / Génethique.org - Doit-on breveter le vivant ?
21 / Romandie News - Labos: les biologistes craignent la mainmise de "groupes financiers"
22 / businessewire.com - Fondation Ipsen : « Biologie de la cognition »
23 / 24 heures philo - Une philosophe broyée par l'université de Brest
24 / Futura-Techno - La bionique : quand l'homme s'inspire de la nature
25 / La Croix.com - La théorie de l'évolution un défi pour l'enseignement
26 / RIA Novosti - Arrêt du LHC: que s'est-il réellement passé?
27 / CordisNouvelle - Les «sept merveilles» de la physique des astroparticules
28 / Le Journal du CNRS - Partenariat industriel -Public et privé jouent dans le même club
29 / Futura-Sciences-Peut-on déceler en radio les immenses cordes cosmiques ?
30 / L'Express.fr - Origins": le nouveau laboratoire international
31 / Futura-Sciences -Des astronomes émettent des doutes sur la matière noire http://www.futura-sciences.com/fr/news/t/astronomie/d/des-astronomes-emettent-des-doutes-sur-la-matiere-noire_17189/
32 / CordisNouvelle - De nouvelles pistes pour détecter la matière noire grâce aux superordinateurs
33 / Questions critiques.free - Enfin, la lumière se fait sur les secrets de la matière noire
34 / Agora Vox - Adieu Marie-Claude Lorne ! Quand l’université amène au suicide une jeune et brillante philosophe
35 / AFIS Sciences - La force d’une croyance peut être immense
36 / www.techno-science.net - Des bulles de gaz pour surveiller des failles sismiques
37 / Beijing - information - La protection et le développement de la culture tibétaine (livre blanc)
38 / Résilience TV - Moraliser le capitalisme ?
39 / RHdemain - Systémique, gouvernance et éthique
40 / www.techno-science-net - La neige en Arctique: ingrédient d'un surprenant cocktail chimique
41 / agriculture - environnement.fr - Quelques réflexions sur le principe de précaution par Luc Ferry - philosophe -
42 / www.techno-science.net - Les montagnes stabilisent le carbone dans la croûte terrestre
43 / Nouvelles Clés - Comment nos descendants travailleront-ils ?
44 / Nouvelles Clés - Les Créatifs Culturels en France
Vous pouvez également consulter le site dédié à l'Université de la Terre, proposé par Nature Découvertes http://22.214.171.124/universitedelaterre_2008